Saudi Arabia's cultural change: Civil society meets 'top-down' reform

Movies, opera, travel: a strong wind of change appears to be blowing through the desert kingdom. According to Saudi Arabia expert Sebastian Sons, reforms could turn the country's culture and economy on its head.

DW: Your book, "Built on Sand: Saudi Arabia — a Problematic Ally" (in German) describes the country as a "black box" from which practically no information emerges. The little we do hear about the country does not sound very promising. Is the human rights situation, or that of women's rights, really so bad?

Sebastian Sons: You have to distinguish between political and societal openings in Saudi Arabia. We are definitely seeing an opening up of society that is primarily benefiting women. Their legal, economic and social situation has significantly improved in recent years, and not just now under the new king and crown prince. The historic high point was the decision to lift the driving ban for women.

But that doesn't actually play such a big role in Saudi Arabia. Much more important is how women can be better integrated into the labor market. Many of them are very well educated and want to take part in economic life. Many young women are also pushing for change in gender relations.All this means that lots of things are changing and many women are benefiting.

On the other hand, the political situation is no better than it was. The human rights situation remains catastrophic. The number of death sentences and political prisoners has risen sharply once again under the new king and his son. One must not fall into the trap of equating societal relaxations with political ones.

Read more: Film 'A Silent Revolution' features Saudi women who went straight to the top

Now live
06:23 mins.
DW News | 02.01.2018

Saudi Arabia: More freedom for women?


"Vision 2030" is the name of the young Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman's major reform plan to wean his country of its oil dependency. What exactly does it entail?

The reform plan seeks to completely redesign Saudi Arabia's economic system by supporting other economic areas, such as tourism. Many people do not know that the second most important source of income is religious tourism, due to the millions of pilgrims who travel to Medina and Mecca every year. This will be expanded through cultural and leisure tourism.

The entertainment sector, which includes culture, will also be expanded. Cinemas and opera houses will be opened, concerts will take place. This is aimed at keeping Saudi money in the country and motivating foreign investors to send their personnel there.

Saudi Arabia's attractiveness is supposed to increase — as a trade hub and site for investment. For Saudi Arabia, these are historic changes that will turn its social contract on its head.

Related Subjects

The first cinema in Saudi Arabia opened in Jeddah in January

Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman also wants society to adapt to new times. But is this cultural change something that can be ordered top-down?

Many things in Saudi Arabia are ordered top-down, but only when society seems likely to accept the changes. Saudi Arabia is a very young society: 70 percent of the population is under 30 years of age, and many of them have studied abroad and now want to lead a newer, freer, more open life. The young crown prince considers himself to be the mouthpiece of this young society. Up until now, these changes have been welcomed, almost to the point of euphoria.

The young generation, more than anyone else, have put all their hope on Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman. They hope that he will not only break up this outdated, entrenched societal structure but will also give them possibilities for economic participation.

What about the clerics? Could they stall a transformation in the Islamic monarchy before it actually gets underway?

The crown prince will take over the kingdom upon the death of his father, King Salman

It really depends on the content. To date, we have heard less from the clerics than had been expected. This is because over the past decade, Saudi Arabia's body of religious leaders have actually appeared to be a sort of junior partner that assists the royal house rather than acts independently.

The economic perspective is also making inroads among the clerics. For instance, they realize that women should no longer be prohibited from working because the Saudi economy can't afford to have a chunk of its population shut out of the labor market.

But naturally there are still lines that the royal house won't cross. Its alliance with the Wahhabi clerics [ongoing since the start of the ultraconservative Sunni movement in the mid-18th century – Eds.] is too important to completely break off.

Germany has sold expensive weapons to Saudi Arabia, but in terms of cultural ties, there's only a single small German-language institute in Riyadh. Is it finally time for a full Goethe-Institut, Germany's official international cultural and language exchange organization?

Yes, it is definitely time. German cultural policy has long been interested in this, but it has been blocked repeatedly by the Saudi Arabian side. The fact that political foundations are still not allowed to operate in Saudi Arabia makes German cultural work very hard.

Sons studied Islamic studies, political science and modern history in Berlin and Damascus

Read more: Can Merkel press Saudi authorities on women's rights?

But I think that other initiatives can be started, even without traditional German cultural institutes. For example, there are initiatives that bring Saudi and Iranian civilians to the same table to talk to one another in these times of conflict between them. German NGOs are a part of this. This requires money and nerves of steel. But it's only when you have contacts in Saudi civil society, and not just in the royal house, that you can understand what's going on in the country. Saudi Arabia is simply too important to be ignored culturally.

Sebastian Sons is an associate fellow in the Middle East and North Africa program at the German Organization for Foreign Policy (DGAP) in Berlin. His areas of expertise include Saudi Arabia's social developments and foreign policy. His book, "Auf Sand Gebaut: Saudi Arabien — Ein problematischer Verbündeter" "(Built on Sand: Saudi Arabia — a Problematic Ally), was published in German in 2016.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

1955: First school for girls, 1970: First university for women

Girls have not always been able to go to school like these students in Riyadh. Enrollment at the first school for girls, Dar Al Hanan, began in 1955. The Riyadh College of Education, the first higher education institution for women, opened in 1970.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2001: ID cards for women

At the start of the 21st century, women could get personal ID cards for the first time. The cards are the only way for them to prove who they are, for example in disputes relating to inheritance or property issues. IDs were only issued with the permission of a woman's guardian, though, and to the guardian instead of directly to the woman. Only in 2006 were women able to get IDs without permission.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2005: End of forced marriages - on paper

Saudi Arabia banned forced marriage in 2005, but marriage contracts continue to be hammered out between the husband-to-be and the father of the bride, not the bride herself.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2009: The first female government minister

In 2009, King Abdullah appointed the first female minister to Saudi Arabia's government. Noura al-Fayez became the deputy education minister for women's affairs.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2012: First female Olympic athletes

Saudi Arabia agreed to allow female athletes to compete on the national team for the Olympics for the first time. One of them was Sarah Attar, who ran the women's 800 meter race at the 2012 Olympics in London wearing a headscarf. Before the Games, there was speculation that the Saudi Arabian team might be banned for gender discrimination if they didn't allow women to participate.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2013: Women are allowed to ride bicycles and motorbikes

Saudi leaders allowed women to ride bicycles and motorbikes for the first time in 2013 — but only in recreational areas, wearing full Islamic body covering and with a male relative present.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2013: First women in the Shura

In February 2013, King Abdullah swore in the first 30 women to the Shura, Saudi Arabia's consultative council. This allowed women to be appointed to these positions, soon they would be allowed to actually run for office...

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2015: Women can vote and get elected

In Saudi Arabia's 2015 municipal elections, women were able to vote and run for office for the first time. By contrast, New Zealand was the first country to give women the vote, in 1893. Germany did so in 1919. At the 2015 Saudi polls, 20 women were elected to municipal roles in the absolute monarchy.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2017: First female head of the Saudi stock exchange

In February 2017, the Saudi stock exchange names the first female chairperson in its history, Sarah Al Suhaimi.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2018: Women to be allowed in sports stadiums

On October 29, 2017, the country's General Sports Authority announced that women would be allowed into sports stadiums for the first time. Three previously male-only arenas will soon be open for women as well, starting in early 2018.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2018: Driving ban eliminated

On September 26, 2017, Saudi Arabia announced that women would soon be allowed to drive, causing a flurry of driving courses for women to prepare for June 2018, when they would no longer need permission from their male guardian to get a driver's license or need their guardian in the car when they drive.

Women's rights in Saudi Arabia: A timeline

2019: Saudi women to be notified by text message if they are divorced

The new law, designed to protect them from having their marriage ended without their knowledge, will allow women to check their marital status online or visit a court to get a copy of divorce papers. Human rights defenders say the law does nothing to address the fact that Saudi women can only obtain divorces in exceedingly limited cases — such as with her husband’s consent or if he has harmed her.